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                如何整理歸納知識體系

                整理歸納知識,形成知識體系是學習過程中非常重要的一個環節。良好的歸納總結,可以讓我們輕松統攬學科全局,提綱挈領。然而,我們發現很多同學,甚至不少優秀的同學被問及如何歸納總結的時候都是一臉茫然。于是,我們一起來探討下如何整理歸納知識體系。

                 

                歸納知識體系的重要性:

                1、掌握知識的需要。評判你每天的學習是否有效,就看有沒有掌握知識,有沒有做對題目。如果沒有,今天就是學習一百個小時,那也是白搭;如果今天掌握了一兩個知識點,做對了一兩類題目,就算今天只學習了一個小時,那也是有效的。掌握知識是做對題目的前提條件。而課本上那么多知識點,完全靠背誦是很難掌握的,更多需要的是理解。

                2、掌握重點的需要。課本上雖然知識點眾多,歸納整理知識體系的目的就是要做到突出重點。

                3、知識提取的需要。實際上,掌握有效清晰的知識體系,有助于我們在遇到題目的時候迅速有效地進行知識點的提取,迅速地對題目作出判斷。如果沒有知識體系,腦袋里變一團漿糊,答題的時候很容易漏掉很多重要的關鍵點或者關鍵步驟。

                4、一定要自己歸納。別人的始終是別人的,自己歸納出來的知識體系才是自己的。有同學說,自己歸納能力不夠,擔心歸納不全面。已經有現成版本,直接背就好了。那我問你,聽別人說長城和自己登上長城的感受能一樣嗎?自己動手歸納的過程,就是逐漸形成體會的過程。

                5、迅速形成知識框架。眼睛閉起來,想一下學科中有哪些重要章節,有哪些重要的考點。我敢肯定,如果你不做歸納,一定是亂七八糟的。如果你做了歸納,并且是超過兩三次的歸納,你的體會一定不一樣。良好的歸納會讓你一閉上眼睛就知道一個學科怎么考,哪些是重點,哪些不考。你都知道哪些必考,到了考場還不兵來將擋?

                6、量變到質變。很多同學抱怨努力學習了那么久,怎么成績還是不見漲。這種情況下,你就需要歸納整理了。我們發現,每做一次歸納,往往學生的實力就得到一次升華。當然,這必須建立在一定量的訓練基礎上。

                 

                二、如何歸納知識體系

                不同水平的同學,歸納整理知識體系是不一樣的。同學水平越高,歸納整理起來越簡單,越輕松。

                我們先來講講都要歸納些什么東西。很多同學以為,歸納整理知識體系就是把重要的公式定理列出來。其實這是及其初級的。歸納整理知識體系其實有四個問題:第一,考什么?確定哪些是非常重要的考點,哪些是一般重要的考點,哪些不考。把這些考點涉及到的公式定理列出來。沒有理解的,記不住的,就趁著歸納整理的機會把這些盡量弄懂,搞明白。第二,怎么考?這個考點常見的出題方式什么,選擇題還是解答題。往往出現在高考題中的什么位置,前面還是后面,難度如何,常常的綜合形式有哪些。第三,怎么答?這個考點常用的答題方法有哪些,往往一個考點的解題方法不會多至一二十種,三五種已經比較厲害了。第四,陷阱在哪?往往我在什么地方出錯。別人錯不錯別管,關鍵是你自己錯不錯。順便還可以編一些順口溜,來提醒自己避免這些失誤,拿到高分甚至滿分。

                 

                三、常見的歸納總結的方法

                1、以章節順序展開的歸納,這種歸納方式是最常見的方式,也是最基礎的方式,比較能夠幫助我們迅速掌握一個學科的知識體系。

                2、題+題的歸納。比如我們把某一個章節歷次考試的題目找出來,對比,問上邊提到的四個問題。我們就能歸納出很多東西。這對于重點章節進行重點突破非常有效。以后,遇到這些章節的題目,就能迅速地從大腦這個數據庫中提取有用的信息,幫助我們高效解題。

                3、試卷歸納。我們通過分析所在省份歷年中、高考真題容易發現一些驚人的結論。試想,如果你在考前都已經知道哪些地方你一定能得分了,你對考試還會沒有把握嗎?同時,由于你非常清楚自己弱勢在哪里,那你就很容易在最后沖刺階段努力解決,從而整體拉伸你的學科成績。

                4、靈感性的歸納。我很多歸納總結就是在散步、吃飯、睡覺,甚至上廁所的時候歸納出來的。

                5、語文、英語學科的歸納。由于語文、英語學科屬于語言學科,體系性不強。但并不是說不歸納。語言學科的歸納,從應試的角度來講,我覺得多做試卷歸納是非常必要的。怎么歸納呢?主要通過試卷歸納的方法展開。

                希望同學們學會知識的歸納,努力是學習事半功倍。謝謝

                                                             蔣曉明

                                                           2015.12.7

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